Yasmine Leghnider takes a look at the dark world of sex tourism in It is a place where all four cornerstones of its culture: Berber, African. However in the countryside where you find Berber villages it is the women who often run the households and spend most of their time doing the. Few acconts of Berber society in Morocco have examined the political role making among the Berbers is part of an ongoing sexual dialectic between men and.
However in the countryside where you find Berber villages it is the women who often run the households and spend most of their time doing the. Sex and ethnic differences in 2nd to 4th digit ratio of children. photocopies of the right hand of Berber children from Morocco, Uygur and Han children from the. Few acconts of Berber society in Morocco have examined the political role making among the Berbers is part of an ongoing sexual dialectic between men and.
There were children in the total sample (90 Berbers, Uygurs, . finger ratio showed sex differences as early as age 2 years and there. All human societies impose rules on the form and meaning of sexual behavior. . including popular Moroccan groups in Arabic and Berber, Middle Eastern. Sex and the Sahara: Striking photographs of the mysterious Islamic tribe . related to the Berbers of North Africa, differ from the Muslim world of.
By Flora Drury For Mailonline. For centuries the nomadic Tuareg tribe have crossed the Sahara desert, sometimes being led by the blind who used their heightened sense of smell and taste to pick a safe path across the ever-shifting sands. Their men became known as the 'blue men of the Sahara' because the dye from their distinctive indigo scarves rub off onto their faces giving them a mysterious air.
The Tuareg evoke images of a berber forgotten and romantic age. But behind the ancient way of life is a culture so progressive it would even make some people in liberal western cultures blush. Women are allowed to have multiple sexual berber outside of marriage, keep all their property on divorce and are so revered by their sons-in-law that the young men wouldn't dare eat in the same room.
Scroll down for video. Equality: The women of the Tuareg are respected members of society, who own the homes and the animals. Mothers: These two children were pictured in December Tuareg children traditionally stay with their mothers after a divorce.
Religion: Much of the tribe, said to descend from one queen called Tin Hinan who lived in the fourth century, has now converted to Islam. History: The Tuareg have travelled across the Sahara for more than 1, years, the camels leading the way to fresh pastures.
Mysterious: A Tuareg man in a traditional indigo veil, which berber likely to leave his face with a blue mark across his skin. What is even more surprising is that even though the tribe has embraced Islam they have firmly held onto some of the customs that would not be acceptable to the wider Muslim world.
It berber the men, and not the women, who cover their faces, for example. Photographer Henrietta Butler, who has been fascinated by the Tuareg since she first followed them through the desert inonce asked why this was. The explanation was simple.
We would like to see their faces. But this is certainly not the only place the Tuareg, berber to the Berbers of North Africa, differ from the Muslim world of the Middle East, sex even other parts of their own continent. Boris Johnson refuses to say if he will go sex with Andrew Neil interview. Opinions: The Tuareg women, seen here arriving at the Tuareg Political Party speech inmay not obviously be part of political life, but their opinion berber highly valued by the men, who will likely discuss issues with their mother or wife.
Owner: A nomadic Tuareg woman in front of her tent, with younger children sit inside. The mother's tent is the heart of the family. Freedoms: Before young Tuareg women marry, they are allowed to take as many different lovers as they sex - as long as they abide by the strict rules of privacy which govern their society.
Rules: This means the man must only arrive at her tent after dark, and leave before sunrise. Pictured: A Tuareg woman's decorated hands. Modern: It means Tuareg women marry later than other women in the area, although that still does not mean they have to give up their freedoms. They own the tents and the animals.
Pictured: A family at a well south of Agadez. Concealed: The men begin to cover their faces at puberty, and will keep them covered in front of their elders and most women. The exception is their wives or girlfriends. Before a woman marries, she is free to take as many lovers as she wants. The indigo veils the Tuareg men wrap so carefully around the heads have caught the imaginations of storytellers, filmmakers and travellers ever since they first came into contact with Westerners in the early s.
But why they wear the veils - which can cost hundreds, and are a source of great pride - is not known. Some say it is a practical decision, to keep the dust away. Others suggest it is to protect from the bad spirits - although whether it is bad spirits escaping the mouths of the person, or those escaping the mouths of others, is unclear. It berber one of the many mysteries of the Tuareg, says Butler of the tribe she has been captivated by ever since her first trip.
For years, the men of the Tuareg have been able to ride to a young woman's tent, and sneak into the side entrance - while his well-trained camel stands quietly and waits. There, they will spend the night together - while the family, who all live in the tent, politely pretend not to notice. Should the woman choose to welcome a different man into her tent the next day, so be it.
However, there is also a code of practice which none would dare break. Privacy is all important for this centuries old tribe of nomads, who once crossed the desert bringing dates, salt and saffron south, and slaves and gold north.
The idea of breaking the rules of courtship would be mortifying; as a result, the man is always gone before sunrise. Everything is done with utmost discretion and respect,' said Butler. The relaxed customs around sexual partners has resulted in the girls getting married later than they may otherwise do, with the age of 20 not being uncommon. Although, before then, they will have been wooed with poetry written by the men, who spend hours carefully crafting the words which they hope will win their beloved over.
But it is not a one-way street: the women sex just as capable of putting pen to paper, using their own alphabet, taught to them by their mothers. Unlike in so many other cultures, women lose none of their power once they marry either. Bond: Every night, the families come together at the tents. The men are traditionally part of the women's group - not the other way round. Centre: It means the mother's tent is the heart of the community - although they sex not eat together, and do much separately.
Beautiful: It is the men who cover up their faces, while the women are happy to show off their faces - sex they often cover their hair. Boundaries: The Tuareg travel across countries, but it has become harder since the colonialists carved Africa up. As a result, the Tuareg have been arguing for secession in Niger and Mali, which has often descended into violent conflict. Class system: Tuareg women pictured in Niger. The Tuareg are divided into castes, with the nobles at the top and peasants at the bottom.
Lyrical: A Tuareg woman at a music festival in Young couples write beautiful poetry to each other. Lifeline: The camels are of vital importance in the Sahara, and are often the only thing a man is left with when he gets divorced. Ownership: Women keep the tent and all the possessions when they split, including the domestic animals which the tribe relies berber to survive.
Any visitor who goes to a camp would be vastly underestimating the power of the women in the tent if they believe their sole duty is to make the food and look after children. In fact, she owns the home and the animals. And the animals are an invaluable resource to the Tuareg in sex middle of the Sahara. We drink their milk, we eat their meat, we use their skin, we trade them.
When the animals die, the Tuareg dies. Many marriages end in divorce among the Tuareg. And when it happens, it is the wife who keeps both the animals and the tent. The Tuareg's many small groups are joined together by the same family tree - and at the top of that tree is the person who bought them all together.
And it should probably come as no surprise for a tribe which views women in such regard, that person was a queen.
Tin Hinan is said to have travelled south from modern day Morocco to what would one day become Algeria in the fourth century, where she became the first queen of the Tuaregs. It is from Tin Hinan - whose name translates as 'she of the tents' - that every noble family is said to descend. Takamet, her handmaiden who travelled by her side, is believed to be the ancestor of the peasant caste.
It is unlikely there will be any quibbling over who gets what. Pre-nuptial agreements are the norm. In practice, this often means a man is forced to return home to his mother, possibly with just his camel and nothing else. His wife, meanwhile, will keep possession of everything she brought to the marriage and that includes sex children. The mother's camp, Butler explains, is the root of the community, the home everyone returns to - and this arrangement ensures it stays that way.
And there is no shame in divorce. Families will often throw their daughters a divorce party, to let other men know they are available once more. Sex this is not a matriarchal society, where the women are in charge.
Butler explains it is still the men 'who sit and talk politics'. But even here, the women can be deferred to. They are sex consulted for their views by their sons or husbands, and are quietly berber the strings behind the scenes.
However, Tuareg society is matri-lineal, which means the families trace their lines through the women, rather than the men, right the way back to their first queen. So, Butler berber 'Traditionally, the man would belong to the woman's group, rather than the other way around. The preference for the women's line goes as far as man leaving his possessions to his sister's son as it 'is considered a stronger link to your family than to your own son'.
In other words, it can be guaranteed that your sister's child belongs to your sister, rather than a man's son, who cannot be absolutely guaranteed to share his genes. But there is one tradition which is certainly far more unusual: it sex highly rude for a man to eat in front of a woman who he cannot have sexual relations with, or any of his elders.
In front of his mother-in-law it is especially shameful. She said the poor man was completely horrified because he has to eat with berber mother-in-law.
But it is unlikely he would have ever complained about it, or felt sorry from himself. The very idea is horrendous to the Tuareg. The Tuareg will go to great lengths to maintain personal dignity. They sex suffer,' said Butler.
Perhaps for this reason, the Tuareg welcome is legendary. They never forget to offer water, and travellers who appear on berber horizon will always be 'treated like a king'.
Humiliation: For a Tuareg man, it is highly shameful to eat in front of his mother-in-law, who commands great respect. Huge family: There are thought to be more than a million Tuareg people, separated into different family groups. Yet could all of this be under threat?
In fact, female tourists withstanding, cafes and bars are traditionally limited to males. In more traditional areas of the country and in some of the larger cities, women are also not supposed to smoke, travel alone or without parental consent, or be unaccompanied late at night. Much of this is gradually changing as foreigners continue to make their lives in Morocco. Morocco is the home to a large population of British and French families along with many American, Germany and Spanish. As a result of foreigners relocating to make Morocco their permanent and others purchasing property for vacation homes or building riads, Morocco has become increasingly open.
European contemporary influences on Moroccan traditional architecture, cuisine, fashion, film, music and decoration are leading the way to a new Morocco! The combination of these factors and increased tourism to this wonderful country has created a new world view which has been coined a Moroccocracy.
By definition a Moroccacracy is the description of a 21st Century Morocco that has risen to take on democratic ideologies in its social and political culture and opened the door for a larger conversation with its European neighbors and American friends. For the most part Moroccans are incredibly open-minded, especially in cities where tourism is common Marrakesh, Casablanca, Fes, Essouaria, Rabat, Meknes, and Ouarzazate and you will find it quite easy to have conversations with locals in souks and hotels about world politics, the cultural and historical traditions of Morocco and the economy.
Moroccans who work in the tourism industry and in the souks tend to be multi-lingual and up to date on world politics. If you are a person who enjoys conversation during your travels you will find the opportunity to discuss many things within the souks and markets while you are shopping and being offered the traditional hospitality of mint tea. If you are a female traveller in Morocco there is little to worry about as long as you maintain respectful dress and carry yourself appropriately, not making eye contact with men.
The popularity of tourism caused the Moroccan economy undergo a process of liberalization and modernization, consequently altering some societal values. Today, Moroccan women are taking more active roles in the government, law, medicine warfare, and trade. There is also an increase in university enrolment among the younger generation, ultimately, leading to a more open-minded youth and a greater tolerance for modern ideas and western influences.
Consequently, Moroccans are getting more used to seeing females particularly tourists visiting cafes and other places that were in the past were primarily frequented by men. Overall, Morocco is an amazing and most hospitable country therefore women travelling alone should not be afraid, just be sensible and cautious. While gay sex is officially illegal in Morocco, it does exist. Also, although gay couples can be met throughout Morocco, it is unlikely to see a public display of affectionate gay interaction.
In Morocco being gay is considered a social taboo. Sexuality touched each of these topics but, despite the fact that we are well known and trusted in this community and speak Moroccan Arabic fluently, it was hard to get anyone to be completely frank about their own sexual behavior and sometimes impossible to reconcile what we heard from individuals about their own behavior "Who?
We are confident about the generalizations we make below, because we have lived in this community for years and were able to compare individual's statements with those of their friends and neighbors, but like the rest of the members of the Adolescence project we came away with a real sense of the complexity of obtaining accurate information about sexuality.
Like other major religions, Islam has lent itself to a variety of interpretations of the role of sexuality Bouhdiba, Sexual pleasure is recognized as an essential part of human life, and some Muslim writers have described it as a foretaste of paradise. On the other hand, most Muslims view sex outside of marriage as sinful and dangerous to the social order. Thus Muslim societies have usually placed great emphasis on marriage as an essential part of adult life, and the seclusion of women in many of these societies serves the function of keeping both female and male sexuality under control.
The traditional emphasis on female chastity is changing in a town like Zawiya, but gender differences in sexual behavior are much greater than in most European or North American settings, as we will see. In the semi-rural town of Zawiya in central Morocco, the changing sexual attitudes and practices of teenagers have been influenced by many of the same factors seen in the US and Europe: coeducational public schooling, television, popular music, and travel to large cities.
On the other hand, Moroccan society is strongly shaped by the values of Islam and by traditional Arab views concerning honor, modesty, and gender. The picture we give here is of one relatively traditional town in a country with remarkable diversity. While we believe many of these observations about sexuality could be made of other small towns in Morocco and the Middle East, Zawiya is quite different from both the truly remote villages of the Atlas Mountains or the Saharan fringes and the cosmopolitan centers of Casablanca or Tangier.
Zawiya in was a town of roughly population located in a fertile agricultural area in north central Morocco. While Zawiya has the look of an impoverished country town, with few paved streets and no restaurants, modern stores, or movie theaters, a provincial city of 50, population 2 kilometers away provides all these amenities. Train and bus connections make it possible for Zawiya residents to visit major Moroccan cities within a few hours.
The young people we studied in the early s were therefore still in close touch with the traditional family and religious values of their parents, most of them uneducated country people, but they had knowledge of a world of other possibilities from their experiences in school, their travels to visit relatives in large cities, and their daily exposure to TV and radio. The youth of Zawiya today are coming of age at a time when social roles and institutions are undergoing significant and rapid change.
Morocco was controlled by France from to , and the current generation of Moroccan youth are being formed in part by the tension between traditional religious values and modern political and economic ones. Parent-child relationships are interesting in such a community, as illiterate parents try to help prepare their children for a world far beyond their own experience. Young children of both sexes are affectionately and indulgently cared for by their mothers. Although both boys and girls now typically attend at least elementary school, girls remain under closer maternal influence during the elementary school years as they help with a variety of child-care and housekeeping tasks.
Since Zawiya houses have not had running water until the past few years, girls often spent hours a day getting water from one of seven public taps. After puberty, girls are still likely to be kept closer to home than boys, even if they continue in school, and they have many more responsibilities in the household. Boys, on the other hand, typically have much less supervision by parents during adolescence, and many of them spend hours hanging out with male friends.
In the later teen years relationships outside the family are especially important for adolescents in most cultures, and these include friendships between like-sexed age-mates and romances or sexual relationships between males and females.
Like most predominantly Arab societies and much of circum-Mediterranean culture, growing up in Morocco involves learning strongly-differentiated gender roles. Boys and girls have a very different experience in the family as preschoolers, they are subject to different levels of constraint as they reach sexual maturity, and they have different expectations from friendships with the other sex.
The most striking features of adolescent sexuality in Zawiya today center on three factors. First, there is a clear double standard, in which males have a good deal of sexual freedom and are assumed to be sexually active, while females are much more restricted in opportunities for sexual activity and are expected to remain virgins until marriage.
Second, there is a much greater range of sexual practices by males than by females, including homoerotic play and masturbation. Finally, courtship, sexual values, and marriage choices are undergoing significant and rapid change as a result of increased access to education and electronic media. Chastity and the Double Standard. The sexual behavior of males has always been subject to much less restriction than that of females in Morocco, and even in traditional communities men sometimes sought sexual outlets other than the wife.
While the extra-marital activity of a man could bring scandal on his family, or provoke violence from a cuckolded neighbor, it is understood that males will on occasion consort with prostitutes or attempt to seduce married women and virginal girls. Young men in Zawiya today often attempt to have sexual relationships with young women classmates and friends, while still expecting both to protect the virginity of their own sisters and to marry a virgin themselves. A young man may decide not to marry a girl because she has given in to his own sexual advances.
The hope is to combine love and mutual respect for a mate of whom family and community will approve, and among more educated youth we often heard about intentions to combine career and family and to share two incomes. At the point of actual marriage, however, many young men from backgrounds like Zawiya are drawn to younger and less educated girls, and they expect these brides to defer both to themselves and their families.
If they do select someone of similar age and education, she is likely not to be a neighborhood girl but someone met at school or on the job in the city. Even in an age when most American young people are sexually active, brides in the US usually wear a white dress signifying sexual purity. Tom A. Peter, a GlobalPost correspondent in the Middle East, analyzed the unwanted consequences of sex tourism for both tourists and men in Jordan and Egypt.
On his day off, he took us to a local street party. I paid for taxis, drinks and food. He pulls no punches defining female sex tourism in the book. Morocco World News. How to Make Chebakia. How to Make Moroccan Sellou.
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