heterosexist definition: Noun (plural heterosexists) 1. A homophobic heterosexual. discrimination in favor of heterosexual and against homosexual people. To the Editor: Michael Colton's article on his sister's lesbian wedding claims he is unfamiliar with the term ''heterosexist,'' yet he unknowingly.
heterosexist definition: Noun (plural heterosexists) 1. A homophobic heterosexual. is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior. Heterosexuals who use the word gay in a derogatory manner (bad way) are being heterosexist in that they associate the word gay with some misfortune or ill.
Heterosexism definition: discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, practised by heterosexuals against | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and. is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior. discrimination in favor of heterosexual and against homosexual people.
Definitions: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Sexual Prejudice. People with homosexual or bisexual orientations have long been stigmatized. With the rise of the gay political movement in the late s, however, homosexuality's condemnation as immoral, criminal, and sick came under increasing scrutiny. Heterosexist the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis inthe question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals began to heterosexist serious scientific consideration.
George Weinberg from and Society's rethinking of sexual orientation was crystallized in the term homophobiawhich heterosexual psychologist George Weinberg coined in the late s. Weinberg used homophobia to label heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals as well as homosexuals' self loathing.
The word first appeared in print in and was subsequently discussed heterosexist length in Weinberg's book, Society and the Healthy Homosexual. The American Heritage Dictionary edition defines homophobia as "aversion to gay or homosexual people or their lifestyle or culture" and "behavior or an act based on this aversion.
Heterosexist the same time, heterosexism began to be used as a term analogous to sexism and racism, describing an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, define, relationship, or community Herek, Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment and other forms of prejudice, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism.
Define institutional racism and define, heterosexism pervades societal customs and institutions. It operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack.
Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual heterosexist visible, they are subject to attack by society. Examples of heterosexism in the United States include the continuing ban against lesbian and gay military personnel; widespread lack of legal protection from antigay discrimination in employment, housing, and services; hostility to lesbian and gay committed relationships, recently dramatized by passage of federal and state laws against same-gender marriage; and the existence of sodomy laws in define than one-third of the states.
Although usage of the two words has not been uniform, homophobia has typically been employed to describe individual antigay attitudes and behaviors whereas heterosexism has referred to societal-level ideologies and patterns of institutionalized oppression of non-heterosexual people. By drawing popular and scientific attention to antigay define, the creation of these terms marked a watershed.
Nevertheless, they have important limitations. Critics have observed that homophobia is problematic for at least two reasons. First, empirical research does not indicate that heterosexuals' antigay attitudes can reasonably be considered a phobia in the clinical sense.
Second, using homophobia implies that antigay prejudice is an individual, clinical entity rather than a social phenomenon rooted in cultural ideologies and intergroup relations. Moreover, a phobia is usually experienced as dysfunctional and unpleasant. Antigay prejudice, however, is often highly functional for the heterosexuals who manifest it. As antigay attitudes have become increasingly central to conservative political and religious ideologies since the s, these limitations have become more problematic.
However, heterosexismwith its historic macro-level focus on cultural ideologies rather than individual attitudes, is not a satisfactory replacement for homophobia. Sexual Prejudice. Scientific analysis of the psychology of antigay attitudes will be facilitated by a new term. Sexual prejudice serves this purpose nicely. Broadly conceived, sexual prejudice refers to all negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
Given the current social organization of sexuality, however, such prejudice is almost always directed at people who engage in homosexual behavior or label themselves gay, lesbian, or bisexual Herek, heterosexist Like other types of prejudice, sexual prejudice has three principal features: It is an attitude i. It is directed at a social group and its members. It is negative, involving hostility or define. First, sexual prejudice is a descriptive term. Unlike homophobia, it conveys no a priori assumptions about the origins, dynamics, and underlying motivations of antigay attitudes.
Second, the term explicitly links the study of antigay hostility with the rich tradition of social psychological research on prejudice. Third, heterosexist the construct of sexual prejudice does define require value judgments that antigay attitudes are inherently irrational or evil.
Herek, G. The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9 Fear of male homosexuality: Cardiac responses of low and high homonegative males. Are define groups of people more prejudiced than heterosexist Herek, Ph.
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Given this lack of semantic transparency , researchers, outreach workers, critical theorists and LGBT activists have proposed and use terms such as institutionalized homophobia , state -sponsored homophobia ,  sexual prejudice , anti-gay bigotry , straight privilege , The Straight Mind a collection of essays by French writer Monique Wittig , heterosexual bias , compulsory heterosexuality  or the much lesser known terms heterocentrism , homonegativity , and from gender theory and queer theory , heteronormativity.
However, not all of these descriptors are synonymous to heterosexism. Homophobia , a form of heterosexism, refers both to "unreasoning fear of or antipathy towards homosexuals and homosexuality"  and to "behavior based on such a feeling".
Researcher, author, and psychology professor Gregory M. Herek states that "[Heterosexism] operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack.
Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are subject to attack by society. It has been argued that the concept of heterosexism is similar to the concept of racism in that both ideas promote privilege for dominant groups within a given society.
For example, borrowing from the racial concept of white privilege , the concept of heterosexual privilege  has been applied to benefits of presumed heterosexuality within society that heterosexuals take for granted. The analogy is that just as racism against non-white people places white people as superior to people of color , heterosexism places heterosexual people or relationships as superior to non-heterosexual ones.
In trying to rebut this premise, some commentators point to differences  between the categories of race and sexual orientation, claiming they are too complex to support any generalizations. For example, " trainer on diversity " and consultant Jamie Washington has commented, although heterosexism and racism are "woven from the same fabric" they are "not the same thing".
Irene Monroe comment that those who suggest or state "gay is the new black", as in a cover story of The Advocate magazine,  exploit black people 's suffering and experiences to legitimize their own. Heterosexism can also intersect with racism by further emphasizing differences among arbitrary groups of people. Likewise, racism can allow LGBT people to be subjected to additional discrimination or violence if they belong to or are considered a part of a socially devalued racial category. Heterosexism as a set of beliefs and attitudes relies on a core tenet according to which homosexuality and bisexuality do not normally exist and, as such, constitute mental illnesses or deviant behaviors.
A set of more nuanced heterosexist views, which some may consider faith, dogma , universal truths , natural law, appeals to authority , or popular beliefs, but others consider to be conventional wisdom or sociobiological knowledge can include, among others, the following:. In an attempt to bring awareness to people who exhibit heterosexist views but are possibly not aware of it, Mark Rochlin constructed a set of questions in which are questions that non-heterosexual people are often exposed to, but not heterosexuals, such as " What do you think caused your sexuality?
As well as comprising attitudes held by an individual or a social group, heterosexism can also exist as the expression of attitudes within an institution. As a result, schools, hospitals, and correctional facilities can act as a showcase for heterosexist attitudes in various ways. First, schools may implement these attitudes and ideas through unequal and inconsistent disciplinary actions. One such example is meting out harsher punishment to a same-sex couple violating the school ground rules while allowing a heterosexual couple to pass with an easier and more subtle disciplinary action for an equal or identical violation.
Also, hospitals may limit patient visiting only to immediate family, i. Heterosexism affects the family in several ways.
For example, in many countries around the world, same-sex marriage is not allowed, so non-heterosexual persons must remain unmarried or enter into heterosexual marriage. Psychologists have aimed to measure heterosexism using various methods. One particular method involves the use of a Likert scale.
However, since heterosexism is perceived as something that is unseen it is difficult to determine if someone is heterosexist based on a self-report method. Researchers, thus, have constructed implicit measurements of heterosexism. An example of this would be an Implicit Association Test. A popular implicit association test measuring heterosexism that is open to the public is a virtual laboratory called Project Implicit.
Individuals are more likely to be aware of homophobic tendencies rather than heterosexist views, thus, researchers often measure homophobia instead of heterosexism. Research on heterosexism has focused on variables that may affect views of heterosexism.
For instance, in a study by psychologist, Gregory M. Herek , it was found that there was a gender difference between heterosexual attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Another notable finding of Herek's study was that heterosexual males showed a greater tendency to demonstrate hostility towards gay men rather than lesbians. This type of heterosexism includes anti-gay laws, policies, and institutional practices, harassment based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; stereotyping , discriminatory language and discourse, and other forms of discrimination against LGBT persons such as:.
This form of heterosexism operates through invisibility, under-representation, and erasure. It includes:. Heterosexism causes a range of effects on people of any sexual orientation. However, the main effects of heterosexism are marginalization, and anti-LGBT violence and abuse. The main effect of heterosexism is the marginalization of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals within society. Heterosexism has led to stigmatization and persecution of not only these people but also those of other sexual diversity such as transgender, and transsexual people.
Along with homophobia , lesbophobia , and internalized homophobia , heterosexism continues to be a significant social reality that compels people to conceal their homosexual or bisexual orientation, or metaphorically, to remain in the closet in an effort to pass for heterosexual. Marginalization also occurs when marriage rights are heterosexist.
View on timesmachine. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. To the Editor: Michael Colton's article on his sister's lesbian wedding claims he is unfamiliar with the term ''heterosexist,'' yet he unknowingly manages to write a treatise on the subject.
San Francisco. Here and elsewhere in the book, Jackson provides a nuanced and complex analysis that calls Uncle Go out for his heterosexist perspective, which, Jackson argues, was prevalent among Thai society then.
Verbiage such as this along with additional anti-female and heterosexist rhetoric are potentially even more culturally damaging because of the invasiveness of social media.
Gender and sexuality conference at WSU offered a wide range of in-depth topics. The studies included in the systematic review revealed that most of the risk mechanisms identified e. These factors--the silencing of homosexuality, the preconceived notions about gay sexuality, and the homophobia in s Ireland--will be reconsidered in this analysis of the novel, as Toibin challenges heterosexist assumptions on homosexuality whilst locating his narrative in the heart of a conventional family.
To this gender fracture, we must add the macho and heterosexist discourse on LGBT individuals. Perpetual identity crisis as a political strategy.