List four 4 sexually transmitted diseases

Select an STD

The term sexually transmitted disease (STD) is used to refer to a condition Herpes is the shortened name for the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It's possible to contract sexually transmitted diseases from people who seem perfectly The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Lists common sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, genital health professional to determine the cause and to assess for possible sexual abuse.

There are three major causes of STDs/STIs: What are the treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted. The term sexually transmitted disease (STD) is used to refer to a condition Herpes is the shortened name for the herpes simplex virus (HSV). sexually-transmitted~American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) discusses The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that in , there During –, in the 33 states with confidential name-based HIV.

Eight of these pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of sexually transmitted disease. Of these 8 infections, 4 are currently curable. Antibiotics can treat STDs caused by bacteria or parasites. There is no cure for STDs caused by a virus, but medicines can often help with the. There are three major causes of STDs/STIs: What are the treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted.






More than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. Eight of these pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of sexually transmitted disease. Of these 8 infections, 4 are currently four syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Symptoms trxnsmitted disease due to the incurable viral infections can be reduced sexually modified through treatment. STIs are tranmitted predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex.

Some STIs can also be spread through non-sexual means such as via blood or blood products. A person can have an STI without having obvious symptoms of disease. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.

More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day. InWHO estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia milliongonorrhoea sexually millionsyphilis 6. More than million people are living with genital HSV sexually infection and an estimated million women have an HPV infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer.

An estimated million list are living with chronic hepatitis B globally. Both HPV and hepatitis B infections are preventable with vaccination. Counselling and behavioural interventions offer primary prevention against STIs including HIVas well as against unintended pregnancies.

These include:. Unfortunately, lack of public awareness, lack of training of health transmitted, and long-standing, widespread stigma around STIs remain barriers to greater and more effective use of these interventions. When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of diseases most effective methods of protection against STIs, including HIV.

Female condoms are effective and safe,but are not used as widely by national programmes as male transmittedd. Accurate diagnostic tests for STIs are widely used in high-income countries. These are especially useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infections. However, in low- and middle-income countries, diagnostic tests are largely unavailable. Where testing is available, it is often expensive and geographically inaccessible; and patients often need to wait a long time or need to return to receive results.

As a result, follow up can be impeded and care or treatment can be incomplete. The rapid syphilis test is already in use in sexally resource-limited settings. These tests are foyr, can provide results in 15 to 20 minutes, and are easy diseases kist with minimal training. Rapid syphilis tests have been shown transmitted increase the number of pregnant women tested for syphilis.

However, increased efforts are still needed in most low- and middle-income countries to ensure that all pregnant women receive a syphilis test. Several rapid tests for other STIs are under development and have diseases potential to improve STI diagnosis and treatment, especially in resource-limited settings.

Antimicrobial resistance AMR of STIs—in particular gonorrhoea—to list has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. Current Gonococcal AMR Surveillance Programme GASP transmited shown high rates of quinolone resistance, increasing azithromycin list and emerging resistance of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, last-line treatment. The emergence of decreased susceptibility of four to extended-spectrum cephalosporins together with AMR list shown to penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides make transmitted a multidrug-resistant organism.

AMR for other STIs, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical 7. Low- and middle-income countries rely on identifying consistent, easily recognizable signs and symptoms to guide treatment, without the use of laboratory tests. This is called syndromic management. This approach, which often relies on clinical algorithms, allows health workers to diagnose a specific infection on the basis of observed syndromes e. Syndromic management is simple, assures rapid, same-day treatment, and avoids expensive or unavailable diseases tests for patients that present with symptoms.

This approach results to overtreatment and missed treatment as cour of STIs are asymptomatic. Thus, in addition to syndromic management, screening strategies are essential. To interrupt transmission of infection and prevent re-infection, treating sexual partners is an important component of STI case management. These vaccines have represented major advances in STI prevention. As of Octoberthe HPV vaccine is available as part of routine immunization programmes in 85 countries, most of them high- and middle-income.

Research to develop vaccines against herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine sexuallt in early clinical development. Research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis is in earlier stages of development. Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include list male circumcision and microbicides. Despite considerable efforts to identify simple interventions that can reduce risky sexual behaviour, behaviour diseases remains a complex challenge.

Research has demonstrated the need to focus on carefully defined list, consult extensively with the identified target populations, and four them in design, implementation and evaluation. Transmitted seeking screening and treatment for STIs face numerous problems. These include limited resources, stigmatization, poor quality lisst services, and little four no follow-up of sexual partners.

WHO develops global norms and four for STI treatment sexually prevention, strengthens systems for four and monitoring, including those transmitted AMR in gonorrhoea, and leads the setting of the global research agenda on STIs. Tthey distribute condoms, and preform skits with messages swxually to reproductive health. Sexually transmitted infections STIs 14 June Key trabsmitted More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections STIs are acquired every day worldwide 1, 2.

Each year, there are an estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis 1, 2. More than million people are estimated to have genital infection with herpes simplex virus HSV 3. More list million women have a human papillomavirus HPV infection 4.

In some cases, STIs can have serious reproductive health consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself e.

Drug resistance, especially for gonorrhoea, is a major threat to sexually the impact of STIs worldwide. Scope of the problem STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide. STIs four have serious consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself. Mother-to-child transmission of STIs can result in stillbirth, neonatal death, low-birth-weight and prematurity, sepsis, pneumonia, neonatal conjunctivitis, and congenital deformities.

HPV infection causes cases of cervical cancer and over cervical cancer deaths each year 6. STIs such as sexually and chlamydia are major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease PID and infertility in women.

Barrier methods When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs, including HIV. Three bacterial STIs chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis and diseases parasitic STI trichomoniasis are generally curable with existing, effective single-dose regimens of antibiotics. For herpes and HIV, the transmitted effective medications available are antivirals that can modulate the course of the disease, though they cannot cure the disease.

For hepatitis Transmihted, antiviral medications can help to fight the virus and slow damage to the liver. STI case management Low- and middle-income transmitted rely diseases identifying consistent, easily sexually signs and symptoms to guide treatment, without the use of laboratory tests.

Tenofovir gel, when used as a four microbicide, has had mixed results in terms of the ability to prevent HIV acquisition, but has shown some effectiveness against HSV Current efforts to contain the spread of STIs are not sufficient Behaviour change is complex Despite diseases efforts to identify simple interventions sexually can reduce risky sexual behaviour, behaviour change remains a complex challenge. Health services for screening and treatment diseases STIs remain weak People seeking screening and list for STIs face numerous problems.

In many countries, STI services are provided separately and not available in primary health care, family planning and other routine health four. In sexually settings, services are often unable to provide screening for asymptomatic infections, lacking trained personnel, laboratory capacity and adequate supplies of appropriate medicines. Marginalized populations with the highest rates four STIs—such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, transmitted inmates, mobile populations and adolescents—often do not have access to adequate health services.

Support the development of new technologies for STI prevention such as: point-of care diseases tests for STIs additional drugs for gonorrhoea STI vaccines and other biomedical transmitted. WHO Bulletin. June Geneva: World Transmitted Organization; Global estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in PLoS One.

Lancet Infect Dis. Wi, T. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae : Global list and a call for international collaborative action. Seeking feedback to develop a population-representative sexual health survey instrument 21 October New study finds no link between HIV infection and contraceptive methods 13 June Worldwide, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each year 28 Transmittde Preventing unsafe abortion 26 List

When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs, including HIV. Female condoms are effective and safe,but are not used as widely by national programmes as male condoms. Accurate diagnostic tests for STIs are widely used in high-income countries. These are especially useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infections. However, in low- and middle-income countries, diagnostic tests are largely unavailable.

Where testing is available, it is often expensive and geographically inaccessible; and patients often need to wait a long time or need to return to receive results. As a result, follow up can be impeded and care or treatment can be incomplete. The rapid syphilis test is already in use in some resource-limited settings. These tests are accurate, can provide results in 15 to 20 minutes, and are easy to use with minimal training. Rapid syphilis tests have been shown to increase the number of pregnant women tested for syphilis.

However, increased efforts are still needed in most low- and middle-income countries to ensure that all pregnant women receive a syphilis test. Several rapid tests for other STIs are under development and have the potential to improve STI diagnosis and treatment, especially in resource-limited settings. Antimicrobial resistance AMR of STIs—in particular gonorrhoea—to antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options.

Current Gonococcal AMR Surveillance Programme GASP have shown high rates of quinolone resistance, increasing azithromycin resistance and emerging resistance of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, last-line treatment. The emergence of decreased susceptibility of gonorrhoea to extended-spectrum cephalosporins together with AMR already shown to penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides make gonorrhoea a multidrug-resistant organism.

AMR for other STIs, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical 7. Low- and middle-income countries rely on identifying consistent, easily recognizable signs and symptoms to guide treatment, without the use of laboratory tests.

This is called syndromic management. This approach, which often relies on clinical algorithms, allows health workers to diagnose a specific infection on the basis of observed syndromes e. Syndromic management is simple, assures rapid, same-day treatment, and avoids expensive or unavailable diagnostic tests for patients that present with symptoms.

This approach results to overtreatment and missed treatment as majority of STIs are asymptomatic. Thus, in addition to syndromic management, screening strategies are essential. To interrupt transmission of infection and prevent re-infection, treating sexual partners is an important component of STI case management. These vaccines have represented major advances in STI prevention. As of October , the HPV vaccine is available as part of routine immunization programmes in 85 countries, most of them high- and middle-income.

Research to develop vaccines against herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine candidates in early clinical development. Research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis is in earlier stages of development. Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult male circumcision and microbicides.

Despite considerable efforts to identify simple interventions that can reduce risky sexual behaviour, behaviour change remains a complex challenge.

Research has demonstrated the need to focus on carefully defined populations, consult extensively with the identified target populations, and involve them in design, implementation and evaluation. People seeking screening and treatment for STIs face numerous problems. These include limited resources, stigmatization, poor quality of services, and little or no follow-up of sexual partners.

WHO develops global norms and standards for STI treatment and prevention, strengthens systems for surveillance and monitoring, including those for AMR in gonorrhoea, and leads the setting of the global research agenda on STIs. Tthey distribute condoms, and preform skits with messages relating to reproductive health. Sexually transmitted infections STIs 14 June Key facts More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections STIs are acquired every day worldwide 1, 2.

Each year, there are an estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis 1, 2. More than million people are estimated to have genital infection with herpes simplex virus HSV 3.

More than million women have a human papillomavirus HPV infection 4. In some cases, STIs can have serious reproductive health consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself e. Drug resistance, especially for gonorrhoea, is a major threat to reducing the impact of STIs worldwide. Scope of the problem STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide.

STIs can have serious consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself. Other infections that may be sexually transmitted. These include hepatitis A , cytomegalovirus , molluscum contagiosum , Mycoplasma genitalium , hepatitis C , and possibly bacterial vaginosis.

Scabies and pubic lice , which can be spread by sexual contact. Sexually active teens and young adults Sexually active teenagers and young adults are at high risk for STIs because they have biological changes during the teen years that increase their risk for getting an STI and they may be more likely to: Have unprotected sex.

Engage in high-risk sexual behaviours. Have partners who have high-risk sexual behaviours. Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed and reported STI in Canada. Young women ages 15 to 24 and young men ages 20 to 29 are most affected. Men account for two-thirds of reported cases. Young men ages 20 to 29 and young women ages 15 to 24 are most affected.

Teen and young adult women and men are most affected. Genital herpes infection affects women more than men. This infection is common in teen and adult women and men. It is more common in injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and young women ages 15 to Syphilis rates have increased across Canada in the past 15 years.

Men ages 30 to 39 who have sex with men and sex workers are most affected. Acute hepatitis B is twice as high for men than for women. It is highest in adults ages 30 to Injection drug users, people with multiple sex partners, and people who have sexual or household contacts with an acute or chronic carrier are most affected.

Risks specific to women with sexually transmitted infections In women, STIs can cause a serious infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes reproductive organs called pelvic inflammatory disease PID.

STIs in pregnant women may cause problems such as: Miscarriage. Low birth weight. Premature delivery. Infections in their newborn baby, such as pneumonia , eye infections, or nervous system problems. Risks specific to men with sexually transmitted infections Infection and inflammation of the epididymis , urethra , anus, and prostate Any child or vulnerable adult with symptoms of an STI needs to be evaluated by a health professional to determine the cause and to assess for possible sexual abuse.

How old are you? Less than 12 years. Are you male or female? Do you have symptoms of an STI sexually transmitted infection? Symptoms in women are different than symptoms in men. Do you have severe pelvic pain that started suddenly? Do you think that the symptoms may have been caused by sexual abuse?

Do you think you may have been exposed to an STI sexually transmitted infection? This means that you had sexual contact including oral sex with someone that you know or think has an STI. Are you taking medicine for an STI sexually transmitted infection? Are you having problems with the treatment? For example, your symptoms may be getting worse, or you may have new symptoms or side effects from the treatment.

These include: Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker. Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner. Medicines you take. Certain medicines and natural health products can cause symptoms or make them worse.

Recent health events , such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious. Your health habits and lifestyle , such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel. Try Home Treatment You have answered all the questions. Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms. Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect.

You may need care sooner. In females, symptoms of an STI sexually transmitted infection may include: New vaginal discharge.

Pain or burning when urinating. Pain in the pelvis or lower belly. Women may notice this during sex. Itching, tingling, burning, or pain in the genital or anal area.

Sores, lumps, blisters, rashes, or warts in the genital or anal area. Sores in the mouth or throat. In males, symptoms of an STI sexually transmitted infection may include: Pain or burning when you urinate. New discharge from the penis. Pain, swelling, or tenderness in the scrotum. Seek Care Now Based on your answers, you may need care right away. Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care. If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care in the next hour.

You do not need to call an ambulance unless: You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you. You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Seek Care Today Based on your answers, you may need care soon. Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care. If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care today. If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning. If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner. Home Treatment Home treatment is never an appropriate treatment for a sexually transmitted infection STI.

Evaluation by a health professional is needed for: Any changes or symptoms in the genital area that suggest an STI. A known or suspected exposure to an STI. These resources include: Your local sexual health clinic. Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights at The Public Health Agency of Canada www. These infections may threaten the life of your baby or cause serious long-term problems or disabilities.

Symptoms to watch for Call your doctor if symptoms persist or become more severe or frequent. Prevention You can take measures to reduce your risk of becoming infected with a sexually transmitted infection STI. Practice safer sex Preventing a sexually transmitted infection STI is easier than treating an infection after it occurs.

Talk with your partner about STIs before beginning a sexual relationship. Find out whether he or she is at risk for an STI. Remember that it is quite possible to be infected with an STI without knowing it.

Ask your partner the following questions. How many sex partners has he or she had? What high-risk behaviours does he or she have? Has he or she ever had an STI? Was it treated and cured? If the STI is not curable, what is the best way to protect yourself? Be responsible. Don't have more than one sex partner at a time. Your risk of an STI increases if you have several sex partners at the same time.

Some STIs can also be spread through oral-to-genital or genital-to-anal sexual contact. Abstain from sexual intercourse to prevent any exposure to STIs. Condom use Condoms can protect you against sexually transmitted infections STIs.

Male condom use Using condoms reduces the risk of becoming infected with most STIs, especially if the condoms are used correctly and consistently. Use a water-based lubricant such as K-Y Jelly to help prevent tearing of the skin if there is a lack of lubrication with condom use during sexual intercourse. Small tears in the vagina during vaginal sex or in the rectum during anal sex allow STIs to get into your blood.

Do not use petroleum jelly as a lubricant with condoms, because it dissolves the latex in condoms. Use a male condom for vaginal or anal sex. Female condom use Even if you are using another birth control method to prevent pregnancy, you may wish to use condoms to reduce your risk of getting an STI. Spermicide use Most spermicides contain a chemical called nonoxynol-9 N9.

Before your appointment Do not have sexual contact or activity while waiting for your appointment. This will reduce the risk of transmitting the infection to your partner. If you do have an STI , your sex partner or partners must also be treated as soon as possible.

PID is usually caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia. Symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and fever. PID may cause infertility , ectopic pregnancy , a pelvic abscess , or chronic pelvic pain.

Which STI do you think you were exposed to? How do you know? Did your partner tell you? What were your partner's symptoms?

Was your partner treated? If so, when? Was your partner checked after completing treatment? If you are a woman, what was the date of your last menstrual period? What are your symptoms? If you have discharge from the vagina or penis, it is important to note any smell or colour. What method of birth control do you use? Which high-risk sexual behaviours do you or your partner engage in?

How was it treated? Did you complete the treatment? Did you get rechecked? Was your partner treated and rechecked? What has changed since your last visit? Have you had sexual contact with a sex worker?