To the Editor.—In their article demonstrating reduced fecundity among women smokers, Baird and Wilcox1 cite two other articles that demonstrated a similar. Smoking fetishism (also known as capnolagnia) is a sexual fetish based on the pulmonary consumption (smoking) of tobacco, most often via cigarettes, cigars. Researchers are finding that smoking decreases both sexual desire and performance.
Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction in the general population. Both smoking and sexual dysfunction are. To what extent steroid hormones contribute to lung cancer in male and female never smokers and smokers is unclear. We examined expression of hormone receptors in lung tumors by sex and smoking. Patients with primary non–small cell lung cancer were recruited into an Intergroup. Smoking fetishism (also known as capnolagnia) is a sexual fetish based on the pulmonary consumption (smoking) of tobacco, most often via cigarettes, cigars.
Expert advice on smoking and how it can effect your sexual health, your contraception, your libido and your fertility, as well as advice on how to stop. Sexual arousal requires good blood circulation, yet tobacco exerts a negative effect on blood circulation by constricting blood vessels. Most of. Adenocarcinoma cases with missing smoking status were distributed equally by sex (p=). A comparison of our hospital data with the Isère Cancer Registry.
Sexual arousal requires good blood circulation, yet sex exerts a negative effect on blood circulation by constricting blood vessels. Most of the available studies show that smoking has sex negative impact on the arousal phase — erection and lubrication. It is primarily for this reason that tobacco is harmful for sexual health in the medium term. However, we now know that numerous substances contained within smoke may also exert a more immediate effect, sex to a significant reduction in erectile capacity after just one cigarette.
Furthermore, smoking can also negatively affect fertility, promote certain sexual diseases and lead to an early menopause. The link between long-term smoking and arousal disorders erectile dysfunction or lubrication problems is well known and has been demonstrated 1,2,3.
Although sexual health problems may be caused by many things, smoking can and should be seen as a risk factor in itself, especially when an arousal problem suddenly develops. Smoking effectively poses a well-known risk to cardiovascular health 4,5.
Given that circulation problems are the main physical cause of erectile dysfunction, it is clear that nicotine and tobacco will have a very negative impact on the sexual health of a smoker thanks to their detrimental effects on blood supply. Erectile dysfunction can therefore appear several years before the first cardiac symptoms.
The harmful effect that smoking exerts on the whole network of veins seems to depend on the dosage and smokin how long the person has smoked. The blood vessels in the penis cause an erection thanks to a build-up of blood in the spongy tissues of the reproductive organ. If the arteries become obstructed, the blood supply no longer reaches an optimal level and problems can set in.
That is why the specialized literature now recognizes that erectile dysfunction in men of smokin ages can be a useful warning sex of latent cardiovascular problems. Furthermore, the most commonly smokin medication for treating erectile dysfunction e. Circulation problems in women can also lead to an insufficient level of arousal and, for example, vaginal dryness.
Among the innumerable active ingredients in tobacco, nicotine, carbon monoxide and certain smokin radicals are responsible for the constriction of blood vessels with a more immediate effect, as several recent studies 7 have demonstrated.
Epidemiological studies suggest that smokers may be twice as likely to develop erection problems as non-smokers. The risk is obviously higher if we take into account the risks posed by other smoking-related conditions such as diabetes.
A clear medical recommendation to stop smoking can therefore be formulated, considering the negative impact that smoking has on sexual function. This can be an important motivator for those who wish to stop smoking and regain a functional and fulfilling sex life. It should also be noted that although sexual health problems do not generally affect life expectancy, they are more common than people think and considerably affect the overall health of an individual.
They should therefore sex subject to proper medical treatment. This application helps you to quit smoking! Developed by experts in smoking cessation at the University of Geneva, it sex you free, personalized advice. Sex you create a profile you will receive regular messages, as if you had a personal coach to help you quit!
Sex the main page you can view your list of benefits in the blink of an eye: always useful for staying motivated. You smokin also have fun collecting awards and trophies related to quitting smoking or using this application. Finally, seek support from your friends and family. You can assign yourself a "sponsor" to call in emergencies and share any messages you like such as advice, awards, and trophies on your Facebook wall.
Smoking and sexual health Article by Dr. Christian Rollini, head smokin the Psychosomatic Gynaecology and Sexology Consultation Clinic, Sex Hospital of Geneva General observations Sexual arousal requires good blood circulation, yet tobacco exerts a negative effect on blood circulation by constricting blood vessels.
Physiology The blood vessels in the penis cause an erection thanks to a build-up of blood in the spongy tissues of the reproductive organ. Tobacco is harmful for sexual health As we have seen, most studies have shown that tobacco leads to an impaired arousal phase among men and women.
However, the negative effects of smokin are not limited to arousal and erection problems. Smoking can also affect fertility, effectively decreasing it among both male and female smokers, and as has been well documented, it can also cause problems during pregnancy. The anti-estrogen effect of smoking tends to bring the menopause forward by several years Lastly, many different illnesses such as sexual infections 11 or Peyronie's disease an abnormality of the penis can be activated or smokin by tobacco.
Conclusion A clear medical recommendation to stop smoking can therefore be formulated, considering the negative impact that smoking has on sexual function. Link: www. Prevalence and significance of tobacco smoking in impotence. The effect of cigarette smoking on penile erection. J Urol ; Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence.
Urology ; Statement on smoking and cardiovascular disease for health care professionnals: American Heart Association.
Meston, PhD, Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and subjective sexual arousal in nonsmoking men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. Sex Transm Dis. Practical links About us Contact us Got smokin problem with alcohol? Got a problem with cannabis? Got a problem with gambling? SiteMap Search the site.
Philip Mack. David R Gandara. Karen Kelly. Regina M Santella. Kathy S Albain. Christine B Ambrosone. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Background. Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide.
Difference comparing ever and never smokers Ref. Figure 2. Figure 3. Cigarette smoking and subsequent risk of lung cancer in men and women: Analysis of a prospective cohort study. The international epidemiology of lung cancer: Latest trends, disparities, and tumor characteristics.
Invited commentary: The etiology of lung cancer in men compared with women. Menstrual and reproductive factors in association with lung cancer in female lifetime nonsmokers. Reproductive factors, hormone use, and risk for lung cancer in postmenopausal women, the Nurses' Health Study.
Noncardiovascular disease outcomes during 6. Oestrogen plus progestin and lung cancer in postmenopausal women Women's Health Initiative trial : A post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Reproductive factors, hormone use, estrogen receptor expression and risk of non small-cell lung cancer in women. Nuclear estrogen receptor beta in lung cancer: Expression and survival differences by sex. Combined analysis of estrogen receptor beta-1 and progesterone receptor expression identifies lung cancer patients with poor outcome.
Progesterone receptor in non-small cell lung cancer—a potent prognostic factor and possible target for endocrine therapy. EGFR expression as a predictor of survival for first-line chemotherapy plus cetuximab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Analysis of data from the phase 3 FLEX study. Checking the Cox model with cumulative sums of martingale-based residuals. Association between estrogen receptor-beta expression and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in the postoperative prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the lung.
ERalpha phenotype, estrogen level, and benzo[a]pyrene exposure modulate tumor growth and metabolism of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta are prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer. Smoking status and survival in the national comprehensive cancer network non-small cell lung cancer cohort.
Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of lung cancer—systematic review and meta-analysis. Lung cancer among postmenopausal women treated with estrogen alone in the women's health initiative randomized trial. Lung cancer and hormone replacement therapy: Association in the Vitamins and Lifestyle Study. Correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and expression of female hormone receptors in East-Asian lung adenocarcinomas.
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Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: An updated meta-analysis of individual participant data. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: An overview of the randomised trials. Aromatase expression predicts survival in women with early-stage non small cell lung cancer. Prospective analysis of oncogenic driver mutations and environmental factors: Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer Study. Trends in stage distribution for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A National Cancer Database survey.
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Prevalence rates of sexual dissatisfaction according to smoking characteristics were calculated. Because smokers and non-smokers were not comparable in terms of some socio-demographic and clinical variables, the smoking-sexual dissatisfaction association was tested with multiple binary logistic regression model, which entered sexual satisfaction as the outcome variable, smoking status as the predictor, and socio-demographic and clinical variables at once to adjust for the potential confounding effects of these socio-demographic and clinical factors.
By using the sample of smokers and the same analytic procedures, two multiple binary logistic regression models one included the level of smoking as the predictor, and the other included the level of nicotine dependence as the predictor were established to further examine the relationships between the two variables and sexual satisfaction.
SPSS software version In total, patients Numbers of light, moderate, and heavy smokers were Numbers of smokers who were mildly, moderately, and severely dependent to nicotine were Detailed socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patient sample were shown in Table 1.
Characteristics of methadone-maintained heroin-dependent patients, spitted by smoking status. The prevalence rates of sexual dissatisfaction were higher in current smokers than non-smokers As shown in Table 1 , compared to non-smokers, smokers were more likely to be males, be non-married, be unemployed, have a short duration of heroin use, and take a low dose of methadone.
Multiple binary logistic regression on the association between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction in methadone-maintained heroin-dependent patients, controlling for socio-demographic and clinical factors. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the smokers were displayed in Table 3. Overall, rates of sexual dissatisfaction in smokers increased with levels of smoking light: Characteristics of methadone-maintained heroin-dependent smokers, and multiple binary logistic regression on the associations between levels of smoking and nicotine dependence and sexual dissatisfaction.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study that is specifically designed to examine the association between smoking behavior and sexual dysfunction of Chinese HDPs receiving MMT. We found a Results of our multiple regression analysis revealed a 1. Psychopharmacological studies have found that nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant, which can stimulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system and promote the release of excitatory neurotransmitters i.
There is convincing evidence that a large proportion of MMT patients, although they have stopped using heroin, are still suffering from prolonged withdrawal symptoms of heroin dependence such as depression and physical pain 27 , Therefore, MMT patients may smoke to obtain nicotine to reduce or relieve withdrawal symptoms.
This could explain the very high rate of smoking in MMT patients. Although cigarette smoking has a potentially beneficial effect on the withdrawal symptoms of MMT HDPs, heavy metals in tobacco smoke can also lead to elevated levels of reproductive toxic chemicals in the blood, such as lead and cadmium The accumulation of the two chemicals in the body would directly damage gonadal cells and tissues and cause sexual dysfunction 43 , The second possible mechanism underlying the smoking-sexual dissatisfaction is the sexual hormone imbalances resulting from the dysregulation of the hypothalamic—pituitary—gonadal HPG axis 45 — For example, smoking may inhibit the ovarian function and lower the level of estrogen, which is related to the higher risk of female sexual dysfunction 5 , Third, smoking could impair the endothelial function of arterial vessels and promote the stiffness of genital vessels, resulting in alterations in the blood flow to genital organs 49 , This affects, for example, blood flow to the penis, which is critical for initiating an erection 8.
Findings from pharmacological studies have shown that methadone and other opioids could suppress the release of gonadal hormones via its inhibitory effect on HPG axis, including testosterone, which plays a critical role in maintaining sexual desire in both men and women 51 — Therefore, in the clinical management of heroin addiction, sexual dysfunction is generally considered as one of the most common side effects associated with methadone treatment 25 , 56 , as confirmed by the significant association between a high dose of methadone and sexual dissatisfaction in Table 3 of the present report.
However, findings from recent studies and the current study indicate that sexual dysfunction is the result of multiple factors including methadone treatment, clinical variables and cigarette smoking 17 , 22 — In this study, we found not only the significant association between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction but also the greater risk of sexual dissatisfaction in heavy smokers relative to light smokers and severe nicotine-dependent smokers relative to mild nicotine-dependent smokers ; the latter finding is in line with the dose-response relationship between cigarette exposure and sexual dysfunction reported in the general population 5.
This study has some limitations. First, data of this study were collected cross-sectionally; therefore, the causality of the relationship between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction needs to be further examined in longitudinal studies. Second, we did not measure the levels of blood sex hormones and nicotine; so the biological mechanisms underlying the smoking-sexual function link could not be determined. Fourth, some other potential factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction such as the relationship with sex partners, number of sex partners, organic diseases i.
Fifth, our study only assessed the association of smoking with an overall indicator of sexual dysfunction, sexual dissatisfaction.
No data are available on the associations of smoking with specific types of sexual dysfunction such as desire and arousal disorders. Further studies are warranted to examine these associations. Finally, given the significant sex difference in the prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction, it would be more informative to present results on the smoking-sexual dissatisfaction relationship by sex. In this case, we had to use a combined sample of male and female patients to examine the smoking-sexual dissatisfaction relationship.
Such aggregate-level results might mask the sex difference in smoking-sexual dissatisfaction relationship. Large-scale studies are needed to test whether the smoking-sexual dissatisfaction association differs between male and female patients.
In China, smoking is often regarded as a normal and socially acceptable behavior 57 ; thus, Chinese psychiatric physicians and nurses of MMT clinics seldom advise their patients to quit smoking. This study demonstrated the significant relationship between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction in Chinese HDPs receiving MMT, as well as the higher likelihood of sexual dissatisfaction in heavy smokers and severely nicotine-dependent smokers.
Our findings may suggest the importance of smoking cessation for the clinical management of sexual dysfunction in Chinese MMT clinics. It is necessary to conduct further interventional studies to examine whether quitting smoking can improve the sexual satisfaction of methadone-maintained patients. JL and B-LZ were responsible for the design of the study and interpretation of data, W-XX and B-LZ for the manuscript draft and statistical analysis, Y-MX for the data collection and critical revision of the manuscript, and W-XX for statistical consultation, data extraction, and processing.
All authors reviewed the data and analysis, revised the manuscript, had full access to all of the data in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, and had authority over approval of final manuscript version and the decision to submit for publication.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The authors thank all the patients involved in this study for their cooperation and support. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.
Received Oct 24; Accepted Apr The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction in the general population.
Keywords: smoking, sexual dysfunction, heroin dependence, methadone maintenance treatment. Introduction Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for elevated mortality and a variety of physical morbidities, including cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes 1 — 4. Materials and Methods Subjects This study was a secondary data analysis using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey, which determined the quality of life, mental health, sexual life satisfaction, and non-fatal suicidal behaviors of patients of three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China, from June to July 22 , 25 , 29 — Instruments and Procedures We used a standardized self-report questionnaire to collect data.
Statistical Analysis Prevalence rates of sexual dissatisfaction according to smoking characteristics were calculated. Table 1 Characteristics of methadone-maintained heroin-dependent patients, spitted by smoking status. Open in a separate window.
Table 2 Multiple binary logistic regression on the association between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction in methadone-maintained heroin-dependent patients, controlling for socio-demographic and clinical factors.
Table 3 Characteristics of methadone-maintained heroin-dependent smokers, and multiple binary logistic regression on the associations between levels of smoking and nicotine dependence and sexual dissatisfaction. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study that is specifically designed to examine the association between smoking behavior and sexual dysfunction of Chinese HDPs receiving MMT.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments The authors thank all the patients involved in this study for their cooperation and support. References 1. J Am Heart Assoc 7 10 :e A systematic review of effects of waterpipe smoking on cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes.