Sex workers

'Sex Workers' - 129 News Result(s)

Opponents also refute the idea of consent among sex workers by claiming that such consent is merely a. Who are sex workers, and why do the Open Society Foundations support their struggle for rights? Globally, female sex workers are % more likely to be living with HIV than other women of reproductive age; in Asia, female sex workers are almost 30%.

The National Organization for Women opposes decriminalization. Doing so has led it to gaslight sex workers and echo rhetoric from anti-choice. Opponents also refute the idea of consent among sex workers by claiming that such consent is merely a. Sex workers are 13 times more at risk of HIV compared with the general population, due to an increased likelihood of being economically vulnerable, unable to.

Opponents also refute the idea of consent among sex workers by claiming that such consent is merely a. Who are sex workers, and why do the Open Society Foundations support their struggle for rights? Sex workers are 13 times more at risk of HIV compared with the general population, due to an increased likelihood of being economically vulnerable, unable to.






A sex worker is a person who is employed in the sex industry. Phone sex operators have sexually-oriented conversations with clients, and may do verbal sexual roleplay.

Other sex workers are paid to engage in live sexual performance, such as webcam sex [4] [5] and performers in live sex shows. Some sex workers perform erotic dances and other acts for an audience. These include: stripteasego-go dancinglap dancingneo-burlesqueand peep shows. Sexual surrogates sex with psychoanalysts to engage in sexual activity as part of therapy with their clients.

Sex worker can refer to individuals who do not directly engage in sexual activity such as pole dancers, sex toy testers, and strip club managers. There are also erotic photographers who shoot and edit for adult media and sex reviewers who watch and rate adult films.

Some people use the term sex worker to avoid invoking the stigma associated with the word prostitute. Using the term sex worker rather than prostitute also allows more members of the sex industry to be represented and helps ensure that individuals who are actually prostitutes are not singled out and associated with the negative connotations of prostitute.

In addition, choosing to use the term sex worker rather than prostitute shows ownership over the individuals' career choice. Some argue that those who prefer the term sex worker wish to separate their occupation from their person.

Describing someone workers a sex worker recognizes that the individual may have many sex facets, and are not necessarily defined by their job. According to one view, sex work is different from sexual exploitationor the forcing of a person to commit sexual acts, in that sex work is voluntary "and is seen as the commercial exchange of sex for money or goods". Exner, an American psychologist, worked with his colleagues to create five distinct classes for categorizing sex workers.

One scholarly article details the classes as follows: "specifically, the authors articulated Class I, or the upper class of the profession, consisting of call girls; Class II was referred to as the middle class, consisting of 'in-house girls' who typically work in an establishment on a commission basis; Class III, the lower middle class, were 'streetwalkers' whose fees and place of work fluctuate considerably; Class IV sex workers have workers known as 'commuter housewives', and they are typically involved in sex work to supplement family income; and Class V consists of 'streetwalker addicts', or 'drugs-for-sex streetwalkers' who are considered the lower class of the profession.

The term sex worker was coined in by sex worker activist Carol Leigh. The term is strongly opposed, however, by many who are morally opposed to the sex industry, such as social conservativesanti-prostitution feministsand other prohibitionists. Sex workers may be any gender and exchange sexual services or favors for money or other gifts. The motives of sex workers vary widely and can include debt, coercion, survival, or simply as a way to earn a living.

One Canadian study found that a quarter of the sex workers interviewed started sex work because they found it "appealing". In some cases, sex work is linked to tourism. Sex work can take the form of prostitutionstripping or lap dancingperformance in pornographyphone or internet sex, or any other exchange of sexual services for financial or material gain.

The variety in the tasks encompassed by sex work lead to a large range in both severity and nature of risks that sex workers face in their occupations.

Sex workers can act independently as individuals, work for a company or corporation, or work as part of workers brothel. All of the above can be undertaken either by free choice or by coercion, or, as some argue, along a continuum between conflict and agency.

Many studies struggle to gain demographic information about the prevalence of sex work, as many countries or cities have laws prohibiting prostitution or other sex work. In addition, sex traffickingor forced sex work, is also difficult to quantify due to its underground and covert nature. In addition, finding a representative sample of sex workers in a given city can be nearly impossible because the size of the population itself is unknown.

Maintaining privacy and confidentiality in research is also difficult because many sex workers may face prosecution and other consequences if their identities are revealed. While demographic characteristics of sex workers vary by region and are hard to measure, some studies have attempted to estimate the composition of the sex work communities in various places. For example, one study of sex work in Tijuana, Mexico found that the majority of sex workers there are young, female and heterosexual.

One report on the underground sex trade in the United States used known data on the illegal drug and weapon trades and interviews with sex workers and pimps in order to draw conclusions about the number of sex workers in eight American cities. Sex workers may be stereotyped as deviant, hypersexual, sexually risky, and substance abusive. Sex workers cope with this stigmatizationor othering, in ways such as hiding their occupation from non-sex workers, social withdrawal, and creating a false self to perform at work.

Globally, sex workers encounter barriers in accessing health care, legislation, legal resources, and labor rights. In a study of U. Police use their authority to intimidate sex workers. Depending on local law, sex workers' activities may be regulated, controlled, tolerated, or prohibited. Workers most countries, even those where sex work is legal, sex workers may be stigmatized and marginalized, which may prevent them from seeking legal redress for discrimination e.

Sex worker advocates have identified this as whorephobia. The legality of different types of sex work varies within and between regions of the world. For example, while pornography is legal in the United States, prostitution is illegal in most parts of the US.

However, in other regions of the world, both pornography and prostitution are illegal; in others, both workers legal. One example of a country in which pornography, prostitution, and all professions encompassed under the umbrella of sex work are all legal is New Zealand. Under the Prostitution Reform Act of New Zealand, laws and regulations have been put into place in order to ensure the safety and protection of its sex workers.

For example, since the implementation of the Prostitution Reform Act, "any person seeking to open a larger brothel, where more than four sex workers will be working requires a Brothel Operators Certificate, which certifies them as a suitable person sex exercise control over sex workers sex the workplace.

In one study, women involved in sex work were interviewed and asked if they thought it should be made legal. They answered that they thought it should not, as it would put women at higher risk from violent customers if it were considered workers work, and they would not want their friends or sex entering the sex industry to earn money. Another argument is that legalizing sex work would increase the demand for it, and women should not be treated as sexual merchandise.

A study showed that in countries that have legalized prostitution, there was an increase in child prostitution. An argument against legalizing sex work is to keep children from being involved in this industry. The studies also showed that legalizing sex work lead to an increase in sex trafficking, which is another reason people give for making sex work illegal. One major argument for legalizing prostitution is that women should have a right to do what they want with their own bodies.

The government should not have a say in what they do for work, and if they want to sell their bodies it is their own decision.

Another common argument for legalizing prostitution is that enforcing prostitution laws is a waste of money. This is because prostitution has always, and will continue to persist despite whatever laws and regulations are implemented against it. In arguing for the decriminalization of sex work, the Minister of Justice of the Netherlands expanded upon this argument in court when stating that, "prostitution has existed for a long time and will continue to do so…Prohibition is not the way sex proceed…One should allow for voluntary prostitution.

The authorities can then regulate prostitution, [and] it can become healthy, safe, transparent, and cleansed from criminal side-effects. Many people also argue that legalization of prostitution will lead to less harm for the sex workers. They argue that the decriminalization of sex work will decrease the exploitation of sex workers by third parties such as pimps and managers.

A final argument for the legalization of sex work is that prostitution laws are unconstitutional. Some argue that these laws go sex people's rights to free speech, privacy, etc. Risk reduction in sex work is a highly debated topic. In addition, sex workers themselves have disputed the dichotomous nature of abolitionism and nonabolitionism, advocating instead a focus on sex workers' rights. Inthe Network of Sex Worker Projects claimed that "Historically, anti-trafficking measures have been more concerned with protecting 'innocent' women from becoming prostitutes than with ensuring the human rights of those in the sex industry.

In addition, Jo Doezema has written that the dichotomy of the voluntary and forced approaches to sex work has served to deny sex workers agency. Sex workers are unlikely to disclose their work to healthcare providers.

This can be due to embarrassment, fear of disapproval, or a disbelief that sex work can have effects on their health. There are very few legal protections for sex workers due to criminalization; thus, in many cases, a sex worker reporting violence to a healthcare provider may not be able to take legal action against their aggressor.

Health risks of sex work relate primarily to sexually transmitted infections and to drug use. The reason transgender women are at higher risk for developing HIV is their combination of risk factors. They face biological, workers, relational, and structural risks that all increase their chances of getting HIV. Biological factors include incorrect condom usage because of erectile dysfunction from hormones taken to become more feminine and receptive anal intercourse without a condom which is a high risk for developing HIV.

Personal factors include mental health issues that lead to increased sexual risk, such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse provoked through lack of support, violence, etc. Structural risks include involvement in sex work being linked to poverty, substance abuse, and other factors that are more prevalent in transgender women based on their tendency to be socially marginalized and not accepted for challenging gender norms.

The largest risk for HIV is unprotected sex with male partners, and studies have been emerging that show men who have sex with transgender women are more likely to use drugs than men that do not. Condom use is one way to mitigate the risk of contracting an STI. However, negotiating condom use with one's clients and partners is often an obstacle to practicing safer sex. While there is not much data on rates of violence against sex workers, many sex workers do not use condoms due to the fear of resistance and violence from clients.

Some countries also have laws prohibiting condom possession; this reduces the likelihood that sex workers will use condoms. Brothels with strong workplace health practices, including the availability of condoms, have also increased condom use among their workers.

Health Concerns of Exotic Dancers Mental Health and Stigma In order to protect themselves from the stigma of sex work, many dancers resort to othering themselves. Othering involves constructing oneself as superior to one's peers, and the dancer persona provides an internal boundary that separates the "authentic" from the stripper self. This practice creates a lot of stress for the dancers, in turn leading many to resort to using drugs and alcohol to cope.

Since it is so widespread, the use of drugs has become normalized in the exotic dance scene. Despite this normalization, passing as nonusers, or covering as users of less maligned drugs, is necessary.

This is because strippers concurrently attribute a strong moral constitution to those that resist the drug atmosphere; it is a testament to personal strength and will power.

It is also an occasion for dancers to "other" fellow strippers. Valorizing resistance to the drug space discursively positions "good" strippers against such a drug locale and indicates why dancers are motivated to closet hard drug use. Stigma causes strippers to hide their lifestyles from friends and family alienating themselves from a support system. Further, the stress of trying to hide their lifestyles from others due to fear of scrutiny affects the mental health of dancers.

Stigma is a difficult area to address because it is more abstract, but it would be helpful to work toward normalizing sex work as a valid way of making a living. This normalization of sex work would relieve the stress many dancers experience increasing the likelihood that they will be open about their work.

Being open will allow them access to a viable support system and reduce the othering and drug use so rampant in the sex industry. Forced sex work is when an individual enters into any sex trade due to coercion rather than by choice.

Sex workers may also experience strong resistance to condom use by their clients, which may extend into a lack of consent by the workers to any sexual act performed in the encounter; this risk is magnified when sex workers are trafficked or forced into sex work.

Forced sex work often involves deception - workers are told that they can make a living and are then not allowed to leave. This deception can cause ill effects on the mental health of many sex workers.

Some argue that these laws go against people's rights to free speech, privacy, etc. Risk reduction in sex work is a highly debated topic. In addition, sex workers themselves have disputed the dichotomous nature of abolitionism and nonabolitionism, advocating instead a focus on sex workers' rights.

In , the Network of Sex Worker Projects claimed that "Historically, anti-trafficking measures have been more concerned with protecting 'innocent' women from becoming prostitutes than with ensuring the human rights of those in the sex industry. In addition, Jo Doezema has written that the dichotomy of the voluntary and forced approaches to sex work has served to deny sex workers agency.

Sex workers are unlikely to disclose their work to healthcare providers. This can be due to embarrassment, fear of disapproval, or a disbelief that sex work can have effects on their health. There are very few legal protections for sex workers due to criminalization; thus, in many cases, a sex worker reporting violence to a healthcare provider may not be able to take legal action against their aggressor.

Health risks of sex work relate primarily to sexually transmitted infections and to drug use. The reason transgender women are at higher risk for developing HIV is their combination of risk factors. They face biological, personal, relational, and structural risks that all increase their chances of getting HIV.

Biological factors include incorrect condom usage because of erectile dysfunction from hormones taken to become more feminine and receptive anal intercourse without a condom which is a high risk for developing HIV. Personal factors include mental health issues that lead to increased sexual risk, such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse provoked through lack of support, violence, etc.

Structural risks include involvement in sex work being linked to poverty, substance abuse, and other factors that are more prevalent in transgender women based on their tendency to be socially marginalized and not accepted for challenging gender norms.

The largest risk for HIV is unprotected sex with male partners, and studies have been emerging that show men who have sex with transgender women are more likely to use drugs than men that do not.

Condom use is one way to mitigate the risk of contracting an STI. However, negotiating condom use with one's clients and partners is often an obstacle to practicing safer sex. While there is not much data on rates of violence against sex workers, many sex workers do not use condoms due to the fear of resistance and violence from clients.

Some countries also have laws prohibiting condom possession; this reduces the likelihood that sex workers will use condoms. Brothels with strong workplace health practices, including the availability of condoms, have also increased condom use among their workers. Health Concerns of Exotic Dancers Mental Health and Stigma In order to protect themselves from the stigma of sex work, many dancers resort to othering themselves. Othering involves constructing oneself as superior to one's peers, and the dancer persona provides an internal boundary that separates the "authentic" from the stripper self.

This practice creates a lot of stress for the dancers, in turn leading many to resort to using drugs and alcohol to cope. Since it is so widespread, the use of drugs has become normalized in the exotic dance scene. Despite this normalization, passing as nonusers, or covering as users of less maligned drugs, is necessary.

This is because strippers concurrently attribute a strong moral constitution to those that resist the drug atmosphere; it is a testament to personal strength and will power. It is also an occasion for dancers to "other" fellow strippers. Valorizing resistance to the drug space discursively positions "good" strippers against such a drug locale and indicates why dancers are motivated to closet hard drug use.

Stigma causes strippers to hide their lifestyles from friends and family alienating themselves from a support system. Further, the stress of trying to hide their lifestyles from others due to fear of scrutiny affects the mental health of dancers. Stigma is a difficult area to address because it is more abstract, but it would be helpful to work toward normalizing sex work as a valid way of making a living.

This normalization of sex work would relieve the stress many dancers experience increasing the likelihood that they will be open about their work. Being open will allow them access to a viable support system and reduce the othering and drug use so rampant in the sex industry. Forced sex work is when an individual enters into any sex trade due to coercion rather than by choice. Sex workers may also experience strong resistance to condom use by their clients, which may extend into a lack of consent by the worker to any sexual act performed in the encounter; this risk is magnified when sex workers are trafficked or forced into sex work.

Forced sex work often involves deception - workers are told that they can make a living and are then not allowed to leave. This deception can cause ill effects on the mental health of many sex workers. Sex worker's rights advocates argue that sex workers should have the same basic human and labor rights as other working people.

Advocates also want to see changes in legal practices involving sex work, the Red Umbrella Project has pushed for the decriminalization of condoms and changes to New York's sex workers diversion program. Each year in London The Sexual Freedom Awards is held to honor the most notable advocates and pioneers of sexual freedom and sex workers' rights in the UK, where sex work is essentially legal. The unionization of sex workers is a recent development.

The IUSW advocates for the rights of all sex workers, whether they chose freely or were coerced to enter the trade, and promotes policies that benefit the interests of sex workers both in the UK and abroad. In unionizing, many sex workers face issues relating to communication and to the legality of sex work.

Because sex work is illegal in many places where they wish to organize, it is difficult to communicate with other sex workers in order to organize. There is also concern with the legitimacy of sex work as a career and an activity that merits formal organizing, largely because of the sexism often present in sex work and the devaluation of sex work as not comparable to other paid labor and employment.

A factor affecting the unionization of sex work is that many sex workers belong to populations that historically have not had a strong representation in labor unions. While this unionization can be viewed as a way of empowering sex workers and granting them agency within their profession, it is also criticized as implicitly lending its approval to sexism and power imbalances already present in sex work.

Unionization also implies a submission to or operation within the systems of capitalism, which is of concern to some feminists. Independent contractor vs Employee Performers in general are problematic to categorize because they often exercise a high level of control over their work product, one characteristic of an independent contractor. Additionally, their work can be artistic in nature and often done on a freelance basis. Often, the work of performers does not possess the obvious attributes of employees such as regular working hours, places or duties.

Consequently, employers misclassify them because they are unsure of their workers' status, or they purposely misclassify them to take advantage of independent contractors' low costs. Exotic dance clubs are one such employer that purposely misclassify their performers as independent contractors.

There are additional hurdles in terms of self-esteem and commitment to unionize. On the most basic level, dancers themselves must have the desire to unionize for collective action.

For those who wish not to conform to group activity or want to remain independent, a union may seem as controlling as club management since joining a union would obligate them to pay dues and abide by decisions made through majority vote, with or without their personal approval.

In the Lusty Lady case study, this strip club was the first all-woman-managed club to successfully unionize in Some of the working conditions they were able to address included "protest[ing] racist hiring practices, customers being allowed to videotape dancers without their consent via one-way mirrors, inconsistent disciplinary policies, lack of health benefits, and an overall dearth of job security".

Unionizing exotic dancers can certainly bring better work conditions and fair pay, but it is difficult to do at times because of their dubious employee categorization.

Also, as is the case with many other unions, dancers are often reluctant to join them. This reluctance can be due to many factors, ranging from the cost of joining a union to the dancers believing they do not need union support because they will not be exotic dancers for a long enough period of time to justify joining a union. While some NGOs have increased their programming to improve conditions within the context of sex work, these programs are criticized at times due to their failure to dismantle the oppressive structures of prostitution, particularly forced trafficking.

Some scholars believe that advocating for rights within the institution of prostitution is not enough; rather, programs that seek to empower sex workers must empower them to leave sex work as well as improve their rights within the context of sex work.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Person who works in the sex industry. Pornography legal. Pornography legal under some restrictions. While NOW chapters once held a range of positions on prostitution and pornography, their national leadership now claim all their chapters oppose decriminalizing sex work.

Sex workers, therefore, received the message that the work they do is itself violence. Whether sex workers agreed appeared irrelevant to the argument; for Van Pelt, sex work by its existence victimizes all women.

At the hearing, Christian Nunes, NOW vice-president, relayed a litany of horrors alleged to naturally accompany sex work—sex tourism, kidnapping—which would be repeated later in the day by witnesses from anti-sex work groups like National Center on Sexual Exploitation formerly known as Morality in Media , new religious right-aligned groups like U. The anti-choice group Live Action has attempted to paint Planned Parenthood as colluding in trafficking, getting an activist to pose as a pimp and pretend to ask for advice.

Nothing is new about liberal feminists allying with the right in a war against sex work ; they have been working together for two decades now. But the dissonance of hearing NOW, a group which has placed keeping abortion safe and legal at the center of their mission, appropriate some of the tropes of anti-abortion rhetoric, was only underscored by the testimony of Deepika Srivastava, president of the DC Abortion Fund, which supports sex work decriminalization.

Nor was this the only outlandish pronouncement from NOW leadership. Many people, across the globe, are presently trafficked into industries as varied as farm work, care work, and garment work, where they, too, face violence and abuse. The International Labor Organization estimates there are three times as many people who are victims of all other forms of forced labor than there are victims of forced labor in the sex trade.

And for the past two years, the entire country has been exposed to the powerful men who engage in sexual abuse and violence with their women co-workers and subordinates, across and systematically excused within media and entertainment industries. NOW and their allies across the political spectrum did express concern for victims of trafficking, but at the end of the day, they had one message for the D.

Ending demand—not debt, not employment discrimination, not housing instability—is the solution. And that, NOW says, is a solution which law enforcement must help them deliver.

In Washington, D. Through these cases prostitutes forced a popular recognition of their profession and defended their rights and property. Despite sex workers' efforts, social reformers looking to abolish prostitution outright began to gain traction in the early 20th century. New laws focused on the third-party businesses where prostitution took place, such as saloons and brothels, holding the owners culpable for the activities that happened within their premises.

Red-light districts began to close. Finally, in the Mann Act , or "White Slave Traffic Act" made illegal the act of coercing a person into prostitution or other immoral activity, the first federal law addressing prostitution.

This act was created to address the trafficking of young, European girls who were thought to have been kidnapped and transported to the United States to work in brothels, but criminalized those participating in consensual sex work.

Restrictions and outright violence led to the loss of the little control workers had over their work. In addition to this, in , the Chamberlain-Kahn Act made it so that any woman found to have a sexually transmitted disease STD would be quarantined by the government.

The original purpose of this act was to stop the spread of venereal diseases among U. During the World War I , an estimated 3, women were detained and examined. The state had made sex workers into legal outcasts. Types of sex work expanded in the 21st century. Film and later the Internet provided new opportunities for sex work.

In , Carol Leigh , a prostitute and activist, coined the term "sex work" as it is now used. She looked to combat the anti-porn movement by coining a term that reflected the labor and economic implications of the work. The term came into popular use in the s. A rift formed within feminism that continues today, with some arguing for the abolishment of sex work and others working for acceptance and rights for sex works. The AIDS epidemic presented a new challenge to sex workers. The criminalization of exposing others to AIDS significantly impacted sex workers.

Harm reduction strategies were organized providing testing, counseling, and supplies to stop the spread of the disease. This experience organizing helped facilitate future action for social justice. The threat of violence persists in many types of sex work. Unionization of legal types of sex work such as exotic dancers, lobbying of public health officials and labor officials, and human rights agencies has improved conditions for many sex workers.

Nonetheless, the political ramifications of supporting a stigmatized population make organizing around sex work difficult. Despite these difficulties, actions against violence and for increased visibility and rights persist drawing hundreds of thousands of participants. Emotional labor is an essential part of many service jobs, including many types of sex work. Through emotional labor sex workers engage in different levels of acting known as surface acting and deep acting.

These levels reflect a sex worker's engagement with the emotional labor. Surface acting occurs when the sex worker is aware of the dissonance between their authentic experience of emotion and their managed emotional display. In contrast deep acting occurs when the sex worker can no longer differentiate between what is authentic and what is acting; acting becomes authentic.

Sex workers engage in emotional labor for many different reasons. First, sex workers often engage in emotional labor to construct performances of gender and sexuality.

In the majority of cases, clients value women who they perceive as normatively feminine. For women sex workers, achieving this perception necessitates a performance of gender and hetero sexuality that involves deference to clients and affirmation of their masculinity , as well as physical embodiment of traditional femininity.

For instance Mistress Velvet, a black, femme dominatrix advertises herself using her most fetishized attributes. She makes her clients, who are mostly white cis males, read Black feminist theory before their sessions. This allows the clients to see why their participation, as white cis males, contributes to the fetishization of black women. Both within sex work and in other types of work, emotional labor is gendered in that women are expected to use it to construct performances of normative femininity , whereas men are expected to use it to construct performances of normative masculinity.

Indeed, emotional labor is often used as a means to maximize income. It fosters a better experience for the client and protects the worker thus enabling the worker to make the most profit. In addition, sex workers often engage in emotional labor as a self-protection strategy, distancing themselves from the sometimes emotionally volatile work.

A study in Melbourne, Australia found that sex workers typically experience relationship difficulties as a result of their line of work. This primarily stems from the issue of disclosure of their work in personal relationships. Some sex workers noted that dating ex-clients is helpful as they have had contact with sex workers and they are aware of their employment.

There is very little empirical evidence characterizing clients of sex workers, but they may share an analogues problem. A Scientific American article on sex buyers summarises a limited field of research which indicates that Johns have a normal psychological profile matching the makeup of the wider male population, but view themselves as mentally unwell.

In clients' encounters with prostitutes or exotic dancers and potentially other sex workers as well , many seek more than sexual satisfaction. They often seek, via their interactions with sex workers, an affirmation of their masculinity, which they may feel is lacking in other aspects of their lives.

For sex workers, commodified intimacy provides different benefits. In Brazil, sex workers prioritize foreign men over local men in terms of forming intimate relationships with sex workers. This is a result of local men regarding sex workers as having no worth beyond their occupation. In contrast, foreign men are often accompanied by wealth and status, which are factors that can help a sex worker become independent.

Hence sex workers in Brazil are more likely to seek out "ambiguous entanglements" with the foreign men they provide services for, rather than the local men. Interviews with men and women escorts illuminate gender differences in these escorts' experiences.